AIJ Concept (Activities Implemented Jointly) – Expectations & Opportunities In
Organic Solid Wastes (OSW) generated in Agricultural Produce Market Committee(APMCs), Agri – Food Processing & Storage infrastructure Facilitators.
Potential AIJ Projects in INDIA
Waste Generated in Urban & Suburban Areas posing a serious threat to the environment in wants of complete solutions of waste collection, handling & disposal cum treatment techniques.
Now a days High-Rate Bio-methanation path is considered to be a good option to deal with Organic biodegradable solid waste & other green/ bio degradable waste, otherwise disposed in open field (as a basic tool to land reclamation) is even emitting significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in to the atmosphere. The various ULBs may opt for High-Rate Bio-methanation Technologies based on the available waste’ s Qualitative and Quantitative aspects / characteristics.
To process the organic solid waste (OSW), bio-methanation technology is considered to be most suitable in Indian context (even in MSW with < 45 % organic matter content & low in calorific value andthe only problem is poised to MSW is the waste segregation). So, undoubtedly the organic waste available should be utilised for Energy recovery & organic fertiliser.
The technology essentially converts the OSW into Biogas and Organic manure. The biogas is used for Captive /grid connected power generation and the organic manure through a distribution network.
The outputs of a typical 250 – 300 TPD (small to medium size) module are capable to generate 3.5 – 5MW of power & approx. 250 MT of organic manure.
The AIJ Concept& Carbon Credits Potential
In India the Organic Solid Waste,Food processing waste& APMC waste generated in the cities /and or in suburban areas is disposed where the waste is compacted every day. Because of robust AD conditions that develop, the organic components of the waste are broken down by bacteria into Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4). Methane makes a sizable contribution to greenhouse gases emission (GHGs) effect because of its high global warming potential and also causes a hazard near the sight.
Bio-methanation Technology essentially captures the Methane and Carbon Dioxide (collectively called as Biogas) from Organic/biodegradable waste /APMC waste/ Food Processing waste, which is further employed to produce electricity.
There is a substantial saving/ reduction in the greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence technology qualify as ideal AIJ climate change abatement projects under Universal Carbon Registry forum (UCR).
Anand Institute of Sustainable Energy & Climate Change (AISECC), Mogar for conducting impact assessment study has selected Vaghrol village(Taluka Deesa in Sabar kantha District) for setting up first unit of 85 CMD Biogas Plant (as ideal AIJ climate change abatement projects under Universal Carbon Registry forum (UCR).
Initially, to go with pilot plant based mixed waste (i.e., Potato waste + farms waste + animal dung+ other crop residues) VillageVaghrol on Dantewada University Road, seen very rich in Potato cultivation & having storage infrastructural facilities (having about 14 -15 cold storages). Taking into account of all stocks (i.e., animal dung, seasonal crop residues, agro-food processing waste from the units located in Deesa Taluka, on average, the Potato waste availability of about 110 TPD and other biodegradable waste material of about 150 TPD respectively have been estimated. The total organic waste (low to medium size (200-250 TPD) based Bio-methanation plant Module has been envisaged by AISECC under the aegis of Charuttar Education &Navrachna Trust (CENT).
Impact assessment Study on Effect of Green House GasEmissions by setting up alternative feed stocks-based Biogas Plant has been proposed by Charottar Education &Navrachna Trust (CENT) & Anand Institute of Sustainable Energy & Climate Change
- Biogas produced from a typical 85 CMD capacity IBP will be 85nm3/day
- The composition will be : 60% CH4 & 40% CO2
- The Volume of CH4 will be : 51nm3
- Density (kg/1000) : .0.714kg/m3
- Daily : 51.0*0.714/1000 = 0.0364 ton/day
- Yly : 0.0364*365 days = 13.30 tons/yr
Having global warming potential of CH4 has is 32 times that of CO2, (with global warmings point of view) the saving of methane biogas emission is 13.30*32 = 425.6 Tons/Yr CO2 equivalent
- The volume of CO2 will be
- 85* 40% = 34 nm3/day
- With density of 1.98 kg /day /nm3 under normal temperature & pressure, the weight will be 34*1,98/1000 = 0.066 Ton/day
- 366 *365 days = 24.32 Tons/yr
So, from 85 m3/capacity biogas plant, total CO2 emission reduction will be 425.60 + 24.32 = 449.92 Tons / Yr – (A)
- In addition, CO2 in Biogas, there is also carbon dioxide emitted into atmosphere following of combustion of methane in the internal combustion engines. Which is calculated as under
- 0364 Ton of CH4*44/16 (as per equation of combustion) = 0.1001 Ton/day and considering 365 days 35.53 Tons /Yr – (B)
- So, the total CO2 emission in the atmosphere will be (449.92 + 35.53) =485.45 tons/Yr.
On the similar note a 45m3 biogas plant promoted by CAPPL and GEDA and supervised by AISECC has been conceptualized and constructed in the Uday farm of the DJMIT, Mogar Campus. On 25/08/2022 the feeding of cow dung was started after prayer and formal inaugural session. The glimpses of the occasion are presented here.
The research objectives are towards how to maintain optimum temperature for all seasons and maintain gas production, development of the nutrient reach organic fertilizer and study its effect on the yield and to achieve carbon neutral farming and enriching renewable energy sources. The study of availability of cow dung on regular basis, availability and yield of alternate feed like banana stem and leaves, kitchen waste, garden waste, APMC waste etc. The evaluation of the market for the solid and liquid fertilizer getting generated from the plant will also be studied and documented. Carbon neutral green farming practice as depicted in the following diagram will be focused.